The findings of studies investigating the effectiveness of the SHAPE CODINGTM system have been published in peer-reviewed journals and references are listed below.

Ebbels, S., Gadd, M., Nicoll, H., Hughes, L., Dawson, N., Burke, C., Calder, S. & Frizelle, P. (in press). The effectiveness of individualized morphosyntactic target identification and explicit intervention using the SHAPE CODINGTM system for children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) and the impact of within-session dosage. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. Accepted version. Poster.

Calder, S. D., Claessen, M., Leitão, S., & Ebbels, S. (2021). Evaluating two different dose frequencies and cumulative intervention intensities to improve past tense production for early school-aged children with developmental language disorder. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 56(6), 1278-1295. doi: 10.1111/1460-6984.12667 Link

Calder, S. D., Claessen, M., Ebbels, S., & Leitão, S. (2021). The Efficacy of an Explicit Intervention Approach to Improve Past Tense Marking for Early School-Age Children With Developmental Language Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(1), 91-104. doi:10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00132 Link Accepted version

Balthazar, C. H., Ebbels, S., & Zwitserlood, R. (2020). Explicit Grammatical Intervention for Developmental Language Disorder: Three Approaches. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools, 51(2), 226-246. doi:10.1044/2019_LSHSS-19-00046 Link

Calder, S. D., Claessen, M.,Ebbels, S., & Leitão, S. (2020). Explicit Grammar Intervention in Young School-Aged Children With Developmental Language Disorder: An Efficacy Study Using Single-Case Experimental Design. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools, 51(2), 298-316. doi:doi:10.1044/2019_LSHSS-19-00060 Link Accepted version

Springle, A., & Hester, P. (2019). A comparison of visual- and movement-based grammar interventions for school-age children with language impairment. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups. doi:10.23641/asha.9454127

Tobin, L. M., & Ebbels, S. H. (2019). Effectiveness of intervention with visual templates targeting tense and plural agreement in copula and auxiliary structures in school-aged children with complex needs: a pilot study. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 33(1-2), 175-190. doi:10.1080/02699206.2018.1501608 LinkAccepted version

Calder, S. D., Claessen, M., & Leitão, S. (2018) Combining implicit and explicit intervention approaches to target grammar in young children with Developmental Language Disorder. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 34 (2): 171-189. doi:10.1177/0265659017735392 Link

Newton, C., Kirby, P., & Bruce, C. (2017). Getting into shape: the effect of Shape Coding on the spoken language production of two men with chronic aphasia. Aphasiology, 1-23. doi:10.1080/02687038.2017.1306639. Link

Ebbels, S. H., Maric, M., Murphy, A., & Turner, G. (2014).  Improving comprehension in adolescents with severe receptive language impairments: a randomised control trial of intervention for coordinating conjunctions. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 49: 30-48. Link

Ebbels, S. H. (2014). Effectiveness of intervention for grammar in school-aged children with primary language impairments: a review of the evidence. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 30: 7-40. Link

Kulkarni, A., Pring, T. & Ebbels, S.H. (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of therapy based around Shape Coding to develop the use of regular past tense morphemes in two children with language impairments. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 30: 245-254. Accepted version

Ebbels, S.H., van der Lely, H.K.J., and Dockrell, J.E. (2007). Intervention for verb argument structure in children with persistent SLI: a randomized control trial. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 50, 1330-1349. Link

Ebbels, S.H. (2007). Teaching grammar to school-aged children with Specific Language Impairment using Shape Coding. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 23, 67-93.  LinkAccepted version with update notesVodcast.

Ebbels, S. and van der Lely, H. (2001). Meta-syntactic therapy using visual coding for children with severe persistent SLI. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 36 (supplement), 345-350. Link