TA5 simple regular past tense -ed

Intervention outline

You will need:

  • SHAPE CODING app, or
  • Large SV sentence shapes – oval, hexagon, diamond was.
  • Large SA sentence shapes – oval, cloud, diamond was.
  • Laminated -ing blue zigzag marker / -ed past tense marker.  NEED TO ADD TO RESOURCES
  • Black and blue time/tense arrows.   NEED TO ADD TO RESOURCES
  • Pictures/printed text of words to be used during the session if required.
  • Small figures/action cards.

App settings: turn on the following settings

  • Past tense diamond

Machine generated alternative text:

  • Past tense-ed
Machine generated alternative text:
  • Past time triangle
Machine generated alternative text:

Intervention Steps:

  1. Check verb vocabulary – use regular verbs only at this stage, e.g. walk, jump, hop, smile, cry, shout. Choose verbs the child is familiar with. 

You may want to use this PowerPoint to help with steps below:

  1. Recap the present/past time line and past markers, e.g. yesterday, earlier, last week, a moment ago.
  1. Teach past progressive TA5 first and/or check-up past progressive is accurately formed.

Act out an action with a small toy and then stop. Ask the child what was the figure was doing, e.g. hopping.

Lay out the SHAPE CODING template for the sentence in the past progressive tense (below). Remind the child that the past tense arrow on the diamond matches the black one on the time triangle. The zigzag goes with the ‘was’ in the diamond.

Repeat with 2 more actions e.g. A moment ago, Maya was jumping.  A moment ago, Fred was crying. This is often used as background information (e.g., setting in a narrative), or for an action which was interrupted before the Subject had completed the action.

a moment ago was hopplqg

  1. Introduce simple past tense coding. Explain there is a different way of telling about actions where the Subject had finished the action, or where it took place only for a short time.

Show how to change from past progressive to simple past by removing diamond (aux) word and adding –ed.  Say: “The past tense arrow needs to move to the hexagon when there is no diamond. This means the zigzag has to change to a past tense arrow with –ed.”

Sha ho a moment ago

Model and practise the sentence Shaggy hopped. Ask the child what the other two characters did earlier.  Help the child form these sentences with the correct coding: Velma cried /  Fred jumped.

  1. Repeat steps 3-4 with other regular verbs. Watch video clips/act out verbs to practice changing past progressive to simple past and simple past back to past progressive.  Use error coding to give explicit feedback depending on the child’s error.

If the child says: “Fred was jumped” – use 2 past tense arrows and say they moved the arrow to the hexagon and added –ed but forgot to get rid of the diamond and its arrow. Ask them to do this and then re-form the setnence.

If the child says: “Fred jumping,” use just a zigzag and say they got rid of the diamond

Complete written exercises to practise if appropriate example here.

  1. Introduce irregular verbs e.g. run, drink, eat,  go, make. Work through steps 3 and 4 including adding –ed, e.g. drinked. Say: “This doesn’t sound right. For some verbs, you have to change the word itself, rather than add an ending.” Show how runned, should be ran / drinked, should be drank.

Repeat step 5. Work through irregular verbs in sets, e.g.:

vowel change – get/got; run/ran; meet/met, speak/spoke

-ew endings – blow/blew; fly/flew; know/knew

-ought endings – catch/ caught; think/thought; buy/bought; seek/sought

no change – hit/set/fit/bet

all change – go/went; say/said.

  1. Teach the child to match the tense to the question asked. If you ask “What was someone doing?” they should use was + Ing to answer. If you ask: “What did someone do?”, they should use –ed.

Identify tense of different verbs in isolation or in sentences

  1. Self monitoring  /Error Detection: Student corrects adult’s “bad sentences”  (verbal and written, as appropriate) and then corrects own free writing.
  1. Generalisation. Facilitate opportunities for practice e.g. Use sequencing pictures or mishap clips to give child opportunity to practice using both past progressive/simple past tenses together e.g. The boy was sliding down the hill on his sledge and then fell into a pond.  The lady was baking a cake but left it in the oven too long and it burned.

For session plans used by Calder, S. D., Claessen, M., Ebbels, S., & Leitão, S. (2020 and 2021), please see here.



Additional Resources