TA4 past tense copula/aux (was/were)
You will need:
- Large SV sentence shape code shapes- oval, hexagon, diamond (was) see here
- Large SA sentence shape code shapes – oval, cloud, diamond (was) see here
- Laminated -ing blue zigzag marker
- Black and blue time/tense arrows – NEED TO ADD TO RESOURCES
- Pictures/printed text of words to be used during the session if required.
- Small figures/action cards
SHAPE CODING app – if using the app, you need to turn on in the settings:
- Past tense diamond
- Present tense triangle
- Past time triangle
- Check-up vocabulary through acting out tasks. Ask the child to jump, run, laugh, smile, sit, stand. Select known verbs to use in sessions.
- Check up TA1 present progressive forms by acting out SV using toys / figures/verbs e.g. Ted is sleeping. Ask the child what’s happening now? Point to the oval and then the hexagon, help the child select the subject and verb and ‘helper’ shapes to match your action. Repeat with other example i.e. Fred is jumping.
For steps 1-7, you might like to use this PowerPoint
- Introduce a time line. Establish present (middle) and past (left end) positions on this line.
- Review the ‘now’ time triangle. Think of other words that mean the same e.g. today. Teach that the positions of the blue tense arrow/black arrow in this triangle must match.
If the child uses is for was, say: “I heard ‘yesterday the man is throwing the frisbee,’” pointing at the relevant shapes as you speak. Indicate the error by saying: “You remembered the time triangle and the diamond word, but their arrows don’t match.” Give a forced alternative: “Is it was or is?” Help child reformulate using their chosen auxiliary.
Complete drag and drop activities if appropriate (examples here and here).
9. Repeat from step 1 for past tense copula. Change sentences from present to past and vice versa, e.g. Yesterday, Ted was sad. Today, he is happy. Last week, Fred was in a hotel. This week Ted is in a caravan.
- Reducing shapes: repeat steps 5-8 with fewer and fewer shapes, but then bring back to check responses.
Monitoring: SLT start to make “errors”, get student to spot and correct these:
- Using shape templates as an aid
- Without the templates
- At the end of each session, review verbs covered in previous sessions
- start to mix up sentences to use a range of sentence types.
- Generalisation: Watch video clips with continuing events, e,g. sports matches or performances. Pause and ask the student to say what was happening, how individuals were feeling and where they were, e.g. The boy was playing tennis, he was happy because he was winning, he was on the court.