AD3 common temporal adverbials: before, after, when, while, until
- Large individual time triangles with orange line and black line inside (see here).
- Orange/black pens.
- Strips of paper with black lines for writing main clause on.
- Sequencing images/pictures of daily routines/ schedules.
- Small bell or other sound effect.
- Small toys/figures for acting out.
App settings: Turn on:
- Present and past time triangles
- Triangle with an orange line
- Review ‘when’ triangle shape.
Ensure learner can create sentences using basic ‘when’ triangle shape as in MC7:
- Introduce that we can put a whole sentence (actually a clause) inside a when shape with a special word on the orange line (i.e., a subordinate clause). Some example orange words are: while, when, before, after. If we are not bothered about what is in the sentence, we can just use a solid black, line instead of all the other shapes. On the app, you have to use the shapes for the main clause, but the subordinate clause is represented with a black line.
- Introduce ‘while’ symbol and time triangle with orange line and the word ‘while’ written on the orange line. Discuss how the symbol shows two events that happen at the same time. Use sign or gesture to reinforce meaning of ‘while’ if necessary.
Write a sentence with two parts and write an orange ‘1’ under both parts and tell child both happen first (i.e. no sequence). Generate ideas for two things the same person can do at one time, e.g. eat / watch TV. Write one on the black line inside of the triangle and one on a separate strip of paper OR stick an image of the actions on each black line.
Show how you can move the whole triangle to front of sentence but this does not change the meaning. Do not show that you can change the black lines over and keep same meaning as this only really applies to ‘while’. Teach the rule:
“The orange word must move with the triangle to keep meaning the same”.
- Practise creating multiple examples using ‘while’.
- Take turns to give and follow instructions e.g. “Rub your tummy while you touch your nose.”
- Make chores list for different people, e.g. “Mum cooks while Dad irons.”
- Repeat steps 2-4 above using ‘when’ as a synonym for ‘while’ using same symbol as ‘while’.
- Introduce new ‘when’ symbol, gesture and triangle:
Explain that sometimes ‘when’ signals the time something else starts/stops. The symbol shows this as the main clause line touches the triangle and happens after the triangle (straight after). Lay out and demonstrate this sentence:
Explain that the time triangle with the orange word ‘when’ in it, can be at the front or end of the sentence but the order of the actions doesn’t change. The subordinate clause (in the triangle) happens first and the main clause always happens second (number 2 under it), but straight away.
- Repeat using the same ‘when’ clause to practice comprehension and expression of ‘when’ used in this way.
Then practise creating other examples using ‘when’.
- Take turns to give and follow instructions, e.g. “Rub your tummy when I touch my nose.”
- Make problem solving lists e.g. “When the car breaks down, we take the car to a garage. When the boiler stops working, we can call an engineer”.
Practise with positive main clauses and then negative ones. The latter are harder to understand, e.g. “When the bell rings, don’t clap.” Make a list of actions the child could do, e.g. clap, jump, touch nose. Explain they can choose what to do when the bell rings, except for the one you say.
- Now introduce the ‘before’ symbol, gesture and triangle.
Explain ‘before’ tells us what order actions occur in (but it doesn’t signal the second action to start/stop like when). Write an orange ‘2’ on the triangle and a ‘1’ on the other clause. Using a familiar pair of clauses from above, explain that the action in main clause numbered ‘1’ happens first and the action in the triangle numbered ‘2’ happens second. In the same way as above, write the main clause on the paper strip and the subordinate clause in the triangle.
Show how the time triangle and orange word must move together to keep the sequence of actual events the same. Use permanent sequences to teach this concept receptively if necessary, e.g. making a cup of tea: “I put the water in the kettle before I turn the kettle on”.
NB do not use pronouns in the clauses at this stage, i.e. “I put the water in the kettle before I turn it on”. These should be introduced once the learner understands and can reliably demonstrate how the clause structures work.
- Practise creating multiple examples using ‘before’.
- Take turns to give and follow instructions, e.g. “Rub your tummy before you touch your nose”.
- Write a set of self-care routine clauses, e.g. “We get dressed. We brush our teeth. We get in the taxi.” Decide on the actual order of events and create a visual aid. Then generate sentences to match.
- Once the child is confident with predictable, agreed sequences introduce impossible instructions and sentences e.g. “You eat the banana before you peel it” using the coding to check comprehension. Ask the child to explain why this is impossible and to help you correct it expressively.
Contrast ‘while’ with ‘before’ . Play silly/sensible games for comprehension, e.g. “We brush our teeth while we get in the taxi” vs. “We brush our teeth before we get in the taxi.”
- Repeat steps 6-11 with ‘after’ .
Write an orange ‘1’ on the triangle and a ‘2’ on the main clause. Using a familiar pair of clauses from above, explain that the action in triangle numbered ‘1’ happens first and the action in the main clause numbered ‘2’ happens second. In the same way as above, write the main clause on the paper strip and the subordinate clause in the triangle.
- When you are confident the learner can understand and create before/after sentences with 80% accuracy separately, contrast them.
For comprehension, take turns to give receive instructions. If the listener hears the subordinating orange conjunction first, they should identify it as ‘before’ or ‘after’ and point to the appropriate numbered time triangle. They should switch their point to the main clause as the speaker continues. This supports the order of events being understood. Act out the instruction and check using shapes.
If the listener hears a main clause first, they should point to the main clause line on both symbols until they hear the orange subordinator. After hearing the orange word and second clause they should select the correct symbol to support comprehension.
- Repeat same steps using ‘until’ .
Explain that ‘until’ signals the time something else stops/starts. Lay out and demonstrate this sentence:
Explain that this time the main clause happens first regardless of its order of mention is in the sentence. Use the same subordinate clause for comprehension and expression practice.
Then practise creating other examples using ‘until’. Take turns to give and follow instructions, e.g. “Rub your tummy until I touch my nose”.
Practise with positive and negative, e.g. “Don’t stand up until the bell rings”. Make a list of actions the child could do, e.g. clap, jump, touch nose. Explain they can choose what to do until the bell rings, except for the one you say.
- Review previous temporal adverbials and contrast those the learner is confident with.
- Reduce coding support and bring back shapes/symbols to check.
- Work from easy, logical sequences and events, e.g. “We will go outside after the rain stops” to more challenging, illogical sequences and events, e.g. “We will go outside until the rain stops.”
Use drawings to show comprehension and to encourage expression.